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Description[ edit ] Two of the tablets are rectangular and the third is round. The "V"-shaped sign is missing in Figure 1 upper left De ce site ul de dating plate te. Záhonyi, [ dubious — discuss ] All three have symbols inscribed only on one face.
The others have a variety of mainly abstract symbols. A recent claim of forgery is based on the similarity between some of the symbols and reproductions of Sumerian symbols in popular Romanian literature available at the time of the discovery.
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Dating[ edit ] Workers at the conservation department of the Cluj museum baked the originally unbaked clay tablets to preserve them. This made direct dating of the tablets themselves through carbon 14 method impossible. The discovery caused great interest in the archeological world as it predated the first Minoan writing, the oldest known writing in Europe.
Subsequent radiocarbon dating of the other Tărtăria finds, extended by association also to the tablets, pushed the date of the site and therefore of the whole Vinča culture much further back, to as long ago as BC, the time of the early Eridu phase of the Sumerian civilization in Mesopotamia.
They would thus be the world's earliest known form of writing. This claim remains controversial.
Context[ edit ] Societal development and the need for a writing system[ edit ] A problem is that there are no independent indications of literacy existing in the Balkans at this period. Sarunas Milisauskas comments that "it is extremely difficult to demonstrate archaeologically whether a corpus of symbols constitutes a writing system" and notes that the first known writing systems were all developed by early states to facilitate record-keeping in complex organised societies in the Middle East and Mediterranean.
There is no evidence of organised states in the European Neolithic, thus it is unlikely they would have needed the administrative systems facilitated by writing.
David Anthony notes that Chinese characters were first used for ritual and commemorative purposes associated with the 'sacred power' of kings; it is possible that a similar usage accounts for the Tărtăria symbols. Gordon Childe to describe the first agrarian society in central and eastern Europe.
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This hypothesis and the appearance of writing in this space is supported by Marco Merlini,  Harald HaarmannJoan Marler,  Gheorghe Lazarovici,  and many others. Possibly related finds in the region[ edit ] This group of artifacts, including the tablets, have some relation with the culture developed in the Black Sea — Aegean area. Similar artefacts are found in Bulgaria e.
The material and the style used for the Tartaria artefacts show some similarities to those used in the Cyclades area, as two of the statuettes are made of alabaster. They are all simple pictographs, and a sign for a goat in one culture is bound to look much like the sign for a goat in another.
To call these Balkan signs 'writing' is perhaps to imply that they had an independent significance of their own communicable to another person without oral contact. This I doubt.
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If they do comprise a script, it is not known what kind of writing system they represent. Pro arguments[ edit ] Scholars who conclude that the inscribed symbols are writing are basing their assessment on a few assumptions which are not universally endorsed. The existence of similar signs on other artifacts of the Danube civilization suggest that there was an inventory of standard shapes used by scribes. The symbols are highly standardised and have a rectilinear shape comparable to that manifested by archaic writing systems.
The information communicated by each character was specific, with an unequivocal meaning.
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The inscriptions are sequenced in rows, whether horizontal, vertical or circular. Some archaeologists who support the idea that they do represent writing, notably Marija Gimbutashave proposed that they are fragments of a system dubbed the Old European Script.
Others consider the pictograms to be accompanied by random scribbles.