Geomorphological map of the central part of the Parang Mountains. Gheorghiu et al. Materials and methods The field area extends between m and m altitude. We used topographic maps ;Google Earth highresolution imagery and orthophotmaps 50 cm resolution to identify glacial features on the north-eastern slopes of source area of the Lotru valley Fig.
Glacial landforms were difficult to map because of the heavily forested area at lower elevations in the Lotru valley. The glacial landforms were initially mapped and sampled after field observations. We collected 24 samples for 10Be dating in quartz from boulders on moraines in 4 cirques North Mohoru — 2 samples; Zanoaga Pietroasa — 6 samples; Galcescu — 6 samples; Zanoaga Mare — 7 samples and in the upper part of the Lotru Valley 3 samples Table 1.
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The position, altitude, topographic shielding, dimension of boulders were recorded in the field Table 1. Maximum 3 cm were removed from the boulder upper surfaces which were carefully selected to minimize any potential impact of rolling from cirque walls, overturning or shielding.
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Topographic shielding factor was determined for all the surrounding mountain slopes at each of the sampled localities Dunne et al. Details of sample locations and relevant analytical data are given in Table 1. The 10Be ages were calculated with the Cronus Earth online calculator v. The calculated age uncertainties are expressed as ±1s Table 1. The minimum exposure ages are calculated assuming zero erosion rates for the sampled surfaces since deposition.
Geomorphological setting The results of our geomorphological mapping in the central Paraang Mountains is shown on Fig. Based on the morphologic and morphometric characteristics, there are two types of cirques in this upper part of the Lotru Valley: cirques with quasi-horizontal floor located at — m towards the higher end of the valleys, likely pre-glacial, and smaller hanging cirques on the side walls at — m altitude.
Zanoaga Pietroasa cirque The Zaanoaga Pietroasaa cirque is located in the easternmost part of our study area, on a south-north direction, and is drained by the Iezer rRver Fig. In spite of a large accumulation area, there is no defined cirque at the higher end of the valley.
Here, the river has been eroding headwards, most likely post-glacially. The side walls of the Zaanoaga Pietroasaa cirque are generally steep, and frost-shattered material has rolled down to the bottom of the walls, a process which is still active today.
The western side wall of this glaciated area shelters a smaller glacio-nival cirque in the south, with a very asymmetric transverse profile. It is a highly degraded area due to active ravines throughout.
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To the north, a small hanging cirque is an indication of a former accumulation area that fed into the main glacier of the lezer valley Fig. The cirque's floor is located at — m altitude, ~40 m above the main valley floor. Evidence of glacial erosion is indicated by a reverse slope on the floor of this cirque, covered with frost-shattered material Fig. The rest of the western wall is very steep up to m in height and cut by a deep rock chute towards the north Figs.
The eastern side wall indicates very active slope movement processes, with numerous talus cones at the bottom. The most highly developed cirque in the lezer valley is located at — on the northern side of the Mohoru peak mhere named the North Mohoru cirque. This glacial cirque has a typical amphitheatre shape with a north-eastwards direction.
The main lezer valley is covered in a series of glacial deposits on a m long and m wide surface which the river has mildly incised since glacial retreat. The most notable glacial landform is located along the eastern valley side ~ m long Fig. This landform was probably deposited as a lateral moraine, with very steep ice-proximal sides and mild ice-distal slopes.
The top of the moraine has been extensively modified into several arched features through the continuous addition of frost-shattered material from the side wall, especially towards the southern part where valley side walls are closer.
Further down valley, a clear reverse slope has been formed through intense glacial erosion, just before the glacial threshold that separates the lezer upper valley from its lower part towards the Lotru valley. Material transported by the river postglacially has filled more than half of the lake surface and its former extent can be easily traced.
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The moraine has been deeply incised by the lezer river during the Holocene. Above the confluence of the Coasta Pietroasei and the lezer Statistici Site de date de nunta there is a lateral moraine deposit ~4—5 m above the valley floor.
The deposit dips ° northwards and is covered in semi-rounded and semi-angular boulders of Site ul de dans pentru intalniri gratuite dimensions up to 4 m a-axis. Galcescu cirque complex The Galcescu cirque complex is located in the western part of our study area, in a south-west to north-east orientation Figs.
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To the east, it is separated from the lezer valley by the Galcescu Ridge. The western limit is made by the Pietroasa Ridge, a secondary ridge extending from the main ridge m in the south towards Pietrele peak m in the north.
Glacial erosion and deposition processes left a very detailed glacial imprint in all these cirques. The cirques are located on two different levels.
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The lower cirques — m are very well-developed and consist of 2—3 reverse bed slopes in which lakes have formed. The higher cirques — m are smaller and with a typical amphitheatre shape. The Caaldarea Dracului is a Site ul de dans pentru intalniri gratuite cirque located below the Setea Mare m and Setea Mica m peaks and it is separated from the Zaanoaga Mare cirque by the glacial transfluence Table 1 Sample characteristics, 10Be concentrations and calculated surface exposure ages.
They assume zero erosion, scaling factors according to Stone and a spallation production rate of 4. Exposure ages are presented with the external uncertainties internal uncertainties in brackets.
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The amount and type of the debris indicate that the steep side walls are very active and provide lots of frost-shattered material to the talus cones below. On the south-east wall a large rock chute is the main contributor to the material accumulated below. Various glacial deposits are found at the bottom of this cirque and on the high step towards the Galcescu cirque, deposited as ice flew downwards.
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The Gaalcescu cirque is larger and located approximately m below the Caldarea Dracului Fig. The Galcescu cirque is surrounded by high steep walls in the southern and south-eastern part towards the Setea Mare peak and the Gaalcescu Ridge where talus cones are still actively forming. There are two glacially deepened basins: one basin occupied by Pencu Lake 0. All lakes are limited by frontal glacial moraines at their northern end.
On the eastern side of the lakes, lateral moraines were deposited along the cirque floor. They can be traced up along the eastern side of the cirque to Ouedkniss cauta ofer de femeie frontal moraines in front of the Galcescu Lake.
The Zanoaga Mare cirque is located at — m altitude between the Paasaari Ridge to the south-east and Pietroasa Ridge to the north-west Figs.
There are widespread areas covered with frost-shattered material at the base of the steep cirque walls, especially in the southern and south-western part of this cirque, and partially covered in vegetation.
The Zanoaga Mare cirque is the most representative for the glaciated environment in our study area. It is a wide and shallow cirque that was likely the major ice accumulation area feeding into the main Lotru valley glacier. Moreover, the large amounts of glacially polished areas on the lower south-eastern side walls and the elongated ice moulded bedrock are a good indicator of the direction and intensity of the ice flow Figs.
The Zanoaga Mare cirque comprises one of the most representative erosional and depositional glaciated areas of the Southern Romanian Carpathians.
Based on altitude and morphology, the Zanoaga Mare cirque can be divided into a western and an eastern compartment. The western compartment is smaller and located at higher altitude ~ m.
Ice moulded bedrock in the form of roche moutonnées and whalebacks are typical for this part of the cirque Fig.